Research on Atmospheric Studies: Investigate the Martian atmosphere to better understand its composition, dynamics, and variations. This research can help in developing life support systems and protection against radiation and dust storms.
Agriculture on Mars: Research sustainable methods for growing food on Mars. This includes studies on soil composition, hydroponics, aeroponics, and the use of Martian regolith for cultivating crops.
Astrobiology and Microbial Life: Investigate the possibility of past or present microbial life on Mars. Study extremophiles on Earth and simulate Martian conditions to understand how life might survive and thrive on the planet.
Astronaut Health and Well-being: Research the physical and psychological challenges faced by astronauts on Mars. This includes studies on radiation exposure, bone density loss, mental health, and social dynamics in isolated environments.
Autonomous Rovers: Develop autonomous rovers and drones capable of conducting various tasks on Mars, such as exploration, resource mapping, and transportation, while minimizing human intervention.
Advanced Propulsion Systems: Investigate novel propulsion technologies that could be used on travel on Mars and enhance mission efficiency.
Architecture and Habitat Design: Research innovative architectural designs and construction techniques suitable for Martian environments, focusing on energy efficiency, radiation protection, and adaptability.
Aerobraking and Entry Systems: Study aerobraking techniques and entry systems for safe landing on Mars. Research ways to reduce the cost and complexity of landing missions
Biological Ecosystems for Life Support: Research and develop closed-loop biological ecosystems that can recycle waste, produce oxygen, and provide food for Mars settlers. This could involve studying terrestrial ecosystems and adapting them for Martian conditions.
Biosphere Simulations: Create controlled environment simulations, often called “biospheres,” to study how plants, animals, and microorganisms interact and adapt to Martian conditions. These simulations can inform the design of future Martian habitats.
Base Building Techniques: Explore innovative building techniques using Martian resources, like regolith and ice, to construct durable and sustainable habitats. Research 3D printing, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and other construction methods.
Behavioral Psychology on Mars: Conduct research on human behavior and psychology in the context of long-duration space missions to Mars. Investigate how astronauts adapt to isolation, confinement, and the unique challenges of living on Mars.
Biomedical Research: Study the long-term effects of Martian gravity on the human body and develop countermeasures to mitigate health risks. Investigate potential medical treatments and interventions for space-related health issues.
Biosecurity and Planetary Protection: Develop protocols and technologies to prevent contamination of Mars by Earth organisms and vice versa. Study the potential for life on Mars and its implications for planetary protection.
Backup Energy Systems: Research and develop backup energy sources for Mars settlements, such as advanced solar power systems, nuclear power, or other sustainable energy solutions to ensure a continuous power supply.